Health Ecosystem Economy Society
Cleaner air Less heart and lung disease, cancer, asthma Reduced acidification, eutrophication and eco-toxicity Savings in health costs; less crop damage from ozone
Greener land Rainforests protected as source of medicinal plants Less deforestation – more biodiversity Value of forests for flood protection, soil stability and forest products Forests protected for indigenous societies
Amenity value of forests for health and happiness Sustainable agriculture – less water pollution, and soil erosion, more biodiversity Value of biodiversity for pest and disease resistance and useful plants Safeguarding future food supply
Safe and secure energy Reduced fuel extraction impacts (coal mine and oil rig accidents, coal-miners lung disease, water pollution from shale gas and tar sands) Reduced fuel extraction impacts (water pollution, oil spills, habitat destruction, land use) Secure energy supplies; improved price stability; cheaper energy in long term Renewables give energy access in remote rural areas
Less waste Reduced material extraction impacts (mining accidents, air and water pollution) Reduced material extraction impacts (water pollution, habitat destruction, land use Eco-efficient economy – cost savings; competitiveness Less resource-related conflict
Fewer deaths, injuries and refugees from resource wars
Stronger economy Health benefits of warmer (better insulated) homes Green jobs in energy, recycling, eco-design, sustainable agriculture etc. Less fuel poverty from household energy efficiency
Cost savings from energy and resource efficiency
Lifestyle More walking and cycling – less obesity and heart disease; less traffic noise; fewer accidents Savings in health care costs Cycle-friendly towns - more opportunities for social interaction and outdoor play
Lower meat and dairy diet – less heart disease, obesity, diabetes Less deforestation for meat production Lower food prices from reduced land use for meat production
Less stress from better work-life balance More stable economy less dependent on growth Stronger communities from better work-life balance

Links to other co-benefits pages