Links to external websites featuring research on the co-benefits of climate action

Air pollution

Co-benefits of climate policy.
Report by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency on the global health co-benefits of reduced particle pollution. Bollen et al. (2009).

Climate Cost Project.
Report of European Commission project on economic valuation of the global health co-benefits of reduced air pollution from particles and ozone, and the environmental co-benefits from reduced acidification and eutrophication. Holland et al. (2011).

The Co-benefits to Health of a Strong EU Climate Change Policy.
Report for Climate Action Network Europe, Health and Environment Alliance and WWF, showing the health co-benefits of increasing the EU emissions target from a 20% to a 30% cut in carbon dioxide emissions by 2020. Holland (2009).

Global health benefits of mitigating ozone pollution with methane emission controls.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. West et al.(2006)

Near-term Climate Protection and Clean Air Benefits: Actions for controlling short-lived climate forcers.
Benefits of reducing black carbon, ozone and methane. UNEP (2011).

Simultaneously mitigating near-term climate change and improving human health and food security.
Benefits of reducing black carbon, ozone and methane. Science. Shindell et al (2012).

Implications of incorporating air-quality co-benefits into climate change policymaking.
Literature review of air quality co-benefits studies. Environmental Research Letters. Nemet et al (2010).

Co-benefits of post-2012 global climate mitigation policies.
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change
. Rafaj et al (2013).

Forest conservation

The Cost of Policy Inaction: The case of not meeting the 2010 biodiversity target.
Modelling for the TEEB study estimates that the forests and other natural land that are lost each year would have provided €50 billion worth of ecosystem services for every year into the future, with a net present value (up to 2050) of €1-3 trillion. Leon Braat and Patrick ten Brink (eds) (2008).

Website of the United Nations REDD+ forest carbon payment initiative.

Ecosystem marketplace.
News and data on ecosystem payment schemes including an annual report of forest carbon markets.

Climate Change: Financing global forests. The Eliasch Review.
London: The Stationery Office Limited.

Sustainable agriculture

Organic agriculture and the global food supply.
A review showing that yields from organic agriculture tend to be slightly higher than conventional agriculture in developing countries, and slightly lower in developed countries, and estimates that enough nitrogen could be fixed by leguminous cover crops to sustain the global population (in 2006) without use of synthetic fertilisers, i.e. organic agriculture could feed the world. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems. Badgley et al. (2007).

The crop yield gap between organic and conventional agriculture.
This review shows that yields from organic farming are around 20-25% lower than conventional farming on average, although with best practice and for certain crops there is no yield gap. Agricultural Systems, De Ponti et al. (2012).

Conservation Agriculture With Trees in the West African Sahel – a review.
Describes the benefits of agroforestry for soil fertility etc. ICRAF. Bayala et al. (2011).

Energy security

An integrated assessment of climate change, air pollution, and energy security policy.
Energy Policy. Bollen et al. (2010).

The Energy Report: 100% renewable energy by 2050
WWF, Ecofys and OMA (2011)

Climate policies can help resolve energy security and air pollution challenges
Climatic Change. McCollum et al 2013.

Energy Security and Climate Policy: Assessing interactions. OECD (2007).

Resource efficiency

Resource Efficiency in Europe
Policies and approaches in 31 EEA member and cooperating countries. European Environment Agency.

Roadmap to a Resource-efficient Europe.
European Commission (2011)


Green Winners: The performance of sustainability-focused companies in the financial crisis
Shows that companies with a focus on sustainability tended to outperform their peers. AT Kearney (2009).

Beyond GDP: The need for new measures of progress
The Pardee Papers No.4. Boston University. Costanza et al. (2009).

GDP and Beyond: Measuring progress in a changing world
European Commission (2009).

Climate Change and Employment
Impact on employment in the European Union-25 of climate change and CO2 emission reduction measures by 2030. European Trade Union Confederation and others. Dupressoir et al. (2007).


Improving health through policies that promote active travel: A review of evidence to support integrated health impact assessment.
Health benefits of walking and cycling. Environment International. De Nazelle et al. (2011).

Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions: urban land transport.
Health benefits of walking and cycling.The Lancet, Woodcock et al. (2009).

Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: Food and agriculture.
Health benefits of eating less meat and dairy produce. The Lancet. Friel et al. (2009)